Tinea cruris described in Chapter XXX[JRJ1] may be sexually transmitted.
Candidiasis (moniliasis, thrush), a mycosis of the Candida species, of which Candida albicans is the most common, is mostly superficial, such as in oral thrush and vaginitis. It may cause local inflammation and discomfort but is frequently asymptomatic. An antifungal medication such as nystatin is effective.
Crabs (or "pubic lice") and scabies can both be sexually transmitted. These disorders are dealt with in Chapter XXX[JRJ2] .
Trichomoniasis is a common sexually transmitted infection by the single-celled protozoa Trichomonas vaginalis. In women cervicitis, urethritis, and vaginitis cause itching or burning that may increase during intercourse and urination. There may also be a yellow-green, itchy, frothy foul-smelling vaginal discharge. In rare cases, lower abdominal pain can occur. Symptoms usually appear in women within 5 to 28 days of exposure. Men may temporarily exhibit symptoms such as penile irritation, mild discharge, or slight burning after urination or ejaculation.
Unlike most STD’s, the parasite can live for about an hour on damp towels, washcloths and bathing suits and may be passed by sharing those fomites.
Trichomoniasis is diagnosed by visually observing the trichomonads in microscope and is curable by one oral dose (2000 mg) of metronidazole. It often goes undiagnosed because symptoms are not noted. Sexual partners, even if asymptomatic, should be concurrently treated. Trichomoniasis is associated with increased risk of transmission of HIV, low-birth-weight or prematurity, and increased risk of cervical and prostate cancer.